Sep 12, - Part Computer Workstation A stacked histogram shows cycle usage for each DSP with the To display more detailed information, rotate the knob to select .. Digital I/O. Bits 1, 3, 5 and 7. B2. B3. B4. B5. B6. 13 The RZ6 is equipped with two channels of bit sigma-delta A/D.
Turn on NFC on your bike computer. Be sure not to use any garmin for bike riding on your phone. How do I turn my bike computer on? How is the wheel diameter determined? When am I entitled to make a warranty claim? Mabual is the bike computer displaying sigma bike computer b5-12 manual or incorrect speed? No speed displayed: Although the power consumption during storage is extremely low, temperature fluctuations can impair the battery quality.
When changing the battery, always use sigma bike computer b5-12 manual goods. When cleaning the bike, remove the bike computer from the bracket. Mahual using a high-pressure washer, avoid spraying the bike computer at close range.
Ideal scenario: The wheel size is also automatically converted. For information on how to make the switch, please see the operating instructions. How can I obtain a replacement? What battery does the bike computer come with? Why is the bike computer displaying the message "Low Bat" even though the voltage reading shows sigma bike computer b5-12 manual 3V?
How does Sigma determine if a battery is dead? The bike computer measures the voltage of the button cell under a defined load. The "Low Bat" sigma bike computer b5-12 manual is activated when the total capacity falls below approx. Can I change the battery myself without voiding the warranty? What can be the cause if the bike computer displays no speed? No speed displayed: Bike computer is faulty. For more impact, a sparkline should always be positioned near its data.
Whilst this is not a PivotTable option, it is a great tool to use along with PivotTables. You are welcome to d ownload the workbook to practice. You have now created a visual representation of your data. It will be easy to analyze your monthly data using sparklines, helping you identify trends on the spot. About Us. Open collector output levels per output node: Yaskawa recommends using sigma bike computer b5-12 manual same type of external power sigma bike computer b5-12 manual as that used for input circuits.
Function bik for some sequence output signal circuits can be changed. Cycling about gps allows the pulses best ant+ bike computer by the host controller to be used for control without having to consider the equipment gear ratio or the number of encoder pulses.
Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual move a workpiece 0. So, gear function beforehand. Check equipment specifications related to the electronic gear: Gear Ratio Deceleration ratio. The number of bits representing the resolution of the applicable encoder is not the same as the. Determine the reference unit used. A reference unit is the minimum position data unit used manial move a load. Minimum unit of reference from the host controller.
To move a table in 0. Reference unit: Determine the reference unit according to equipment specifications and positioning accuracy.
Examples in mm: A reference unit of aigma pulse moves the load by one reference unit. Determine the load travel distance per load shaft revolution in reference units. Pitch LLoad d shaft h ft D: Electronic gear ratio is given as: Make sure the electronic gear ratio satisfies the following condition: The servo amplifier will not work properly if the electronic gear ratio exceeds this computer cycle. In that case, modify either the load configuration or the reference unit.
Set the parameters. Reduce the sigma bike computer b5-12 manual gear ratio to the lower terms so that both A and B are integers smaller thanthen set A and B in the respective parameters:. B A Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual Pn Electronic Gear Ratio Numerator.
Electronic Wahoo bike computer combo Ratio Denominator. Set the bicycle trainer bike computer gear ratio according to equipment specifications. Electronic Gear Setting Examples The following examples show electronic gear settings for different load mechanisms.
Reference unit 0. Preset Pn Values Pn Belts and Pulleys Reference unit: Control Block Diagram The following diagram illustrates a control sigma bike computer b5-12 manual for position control. It allows the user to initially set three different motor speeds with parameters, and then select one of the speeds externally using a contact input.
Using Contact Input Speed Control Follow steps 1 to 3 below to use the contact input speed control function. Set bikf input speed control as shown below. The speed can be controlled via contact inputs. Servo amplifier Servo operates at the internally M set speed.
Meanings for the following signals change when the contact input speed control function is used. OFF high level ; 1: ON low level 2. The function is switched automatically when Pn50A. These parameters are used to set motor speeds when the cojputer input speed control computet is selected. If the setting is higher than the maximum motor speed of the servomotor, then the servomotor will rotate at its maximum speed.
Set the soft start sigma bike computer b5-12 manual. The servo amplifier internal speed reference controls speed by applying this acceleration setting. Speed reference Soft start. Maximum speed Servo amplifier sigmw speed reference Pn Sets this time interval. Smooth speed control can be performed by entering a progressive speed reference or using contact input speed control. Set each constant to 0 for normal speed control.
Set each parameter to the following time intervals. Time interval from when the servomotor starts until it reaches maximum speed.
Time interval from when sigma bike computer b5-12 manual servomotor reaches maximum speed until it stops. Operation by Contact Input Speed Control The following describes operation by contact input speed control. Start and Stop The following input signals are used to start and stop the servomotor. Forward Common 1: Input signals indicated by the horizontal bar - are optional.
Position Control. Example of Contact Input Speed Control Operation The following example shows operation by contact input speed control.
Using the soft start function reduces physical shock when the speed is changed. Stop Stop 0 Stop. When Pn Always start. Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual above figure illustrates signal generation timing when the soft start function is used. The value of t1 is not affected by the use of the soft start function. Limits torque after the Servomotor moves the track gps bike to a specified position internal torque limit.
Controls torque output rather than speed output. Switches between speed and torque control.
Torque Control Selection Set the following parameter to select the type of control described in levels 3 and 4. For further explanation of settings, See Appendix B. A torque reference is entered from the host controller to the servo sigma bike computer b5-12 manual in order to control torque. Torque limit speed control by analog voltage See 5. Speed control with torque feed-forward See 5. Torque Reference Inputs The following input signals are used for torque control.
These signals are used when torque control is selected. Default setting 0 4 8 12 Conputer voltage V Default Settings Parameter Pn establishes the voltage level that applies rated torque. For example:. Direction of rotation switching Pn Torque Control Parameter The following parameter is bike computer that pairs with wahoo tickr for torque control.
Set the parameter according to sigma bike computer b5-12 manual of the servo system that is used. Setting Parameter Signal Control Mode 0. This parameter sets the voltage range for torque reference input T-REF CN depending on the output range of the host controller or external circuit. Reference torque Sigmx torque. Reference voltage V This reference voltage is set.
This parameter sets a motor speed limit when torque control is selected. It is used to prevent excessive equipment speed b-512 torque control. Torque Control Range Motor speed. Speed limit Torque control range Torque. The maximum speed of the servomotor will be used if Pn is road bikes cycling to a value higher than the maximum speed of the servomotor.
External Speed Limit function: This function sets the voltage range for sigma bike computer b5-12 manual reference input V-REF CN according sigma bike computer b5-12 manual the output range of the host controller or external circuit.
When the default setting is multiplied by 0. bikf
Reference This slope is set. Principle of Speed Limit Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual the control speed range is exceeded, torque, inversely proportional to the difference between the speed sigmma and the actual speed, is fed back in order to return the system to sigma bike computer b5-12 manual level within the control speed range.
In effect, the sigma bike computer b5-12 manual coputer speed limit depends on the load condition. Motor speed. Speed limit range V-REF. This function is used to: Too high a torque feed-forward value will sigma bike computer b5-12 manual in an overshoot compute an undershoot.
Sigja prevent this, set the optimum value while closely observing the system response. Using the Torque Feed-Forward Function To use the torque feed-forward function, set the following parameter to 2. The torque feed-forward function cannot be used with the torque limiting by analog voltage reference function described in 5. Setting Torque feed-forward is set using parameter Pn The default setting at Pn is Too high a speed which garmin bike computer should i buy value will result in either overshoot or undershoot.
Using the Speed Feed-Forward Function To use the cat eyes bike computer feed-forward function, set the following parameter to 1. Setting Speed feed-forward is set using parameter Pn It cannot be used for torque control because the torque reference input terminal T-REF is used as an input terminal. ON Torque limit. This parameter can be used to enable torque limiting by analog voltage reference.
This function cannot be used with the torque feed-forward function described in 5. To use this function, verify how input signals have been allocated. Refer to Section 5. The following table outlines factory default. OFF Normal operation. Setting The torque limit is set at parameter Pn The servomotor remains locked clamped while the function is in use.
Enables the inhibit function. Prohibits the servo amplifier from ON counting reference pulses. The servomotor remains locked. Reference pulse t1 t2. Servo amplifier Parameters. A panel operator or digital operator is used to set parameterts. Parameter Function Pn to Pn Specify servo amplifier functions, set servo sigma bike computer b5-12 manual, etc.
Enable monitoring the motor speed and torque reference on Un to Un00D the panel display. Appendix B shows a list of parameters provided for reference. Use this parameter to set the motor speed when operating the servomotor from a panel or digital operator.
Digital Operator Panel Operator. Compurer connector input signals are allocated with the default settings as shown in the following table. The default setting for parameter Pn50A.
Functions and applications in this manual are b51-2 described for gps cycling factory defaults. The following table shows the parameter default settings for input settings 1 to 4. Select the input terminal on the CN1 connector that will be used for each input signal. Signal polarity: This setting is meaningful only in the following instances.
The input terminal signal line must be left ON even in system configurations that do not require this signal, but unnecessary wiring can be eliminated by setting Pn50A.
Several signals can be allocated to the same input circuit. When the servo is ON, the forward sigma bike computer b5-12 manual prohibit or reverse run prohibit signal is used. At a setting with inverted polarity, the failed safe operation may not be possible in the case of signal line disconnection.
Allocating Other Input Signals Input signal allocation can b-12 changed as shown below. Forward Run Prohibit Pn50A. Output Signal Allocation Output signal functions wireless bike computer with cadence reviews 2016 be allocated to the sequence signal output circuits shown below.
Output Signal Selection Default Settings The output signal selection parameters and their default settings are shown below. Select the CN1 connector terminals that will output the signals. Not used for the specified output 0 signal. Outputs the specified signal from the SO3 3 CN and 30 output terminal. Speed Coincidence Detection Pn50E. Signals are output with OR logic when multiple signals are allocated to the same output circuit.
Signals that are not detected are invalid. The following parameters can be used kanual invert the signals on output terminals SO1 to SO3. These settings specify which of the connector CN1 output signals are to be b-512. SO3 CN, 30 Pn Manusl following parameter is used to set the control mode. Description of Control Modes The control modes are described below.
Speed Control Analog Reference This mode sigma bike computer b5-12 manual speed using an analog voltage input reference. Position Control Pulse Train Reference This mode controls positioning using a pulse train xomputer reference. Torque Control Analog Reference This compiter controls torque using an analog voltage input reference.
When the Servomotor Will Not Stop The servomotor may rotate at very low speed and not sigma bike computer b5-12 manual even when 0V is specified as the reference voltage for servo amplifier speed and torque control analog reference. This happens when the reference voltage from the host controller or external circuit is slightly offset in mV units. The servomotor will stop if this offset is properly adjusted to 0V.
Reference Computr voltage Offset voltage Offset corrected by the servo amplifier. Computter Offset adjustment Reference compkter or speed or torque torque. Reference Offset Adjustment The following methods can be used to manal the reference offset to 0V.
Manual Adjustment of Reference Offset The reference offset can be set to a specified value. Use manual rather than automatic adjustment if a position control loop is formed in the host con- troller.
See the following sections in Chapter 7 Using the Digital Operator for more sigma bike computer b5-12 manual on adjustment procedures. The servomotor will stop due to equipment manial if the dynamic manua is not applied.
If the servomotor is stopped or moving at extremely low speed, it will coast to a stop. The dynamic brake is an emergency stop function.
Dynamic brake DB is a common way were to mount your bike computer quickly stopping a servomotor by electrically shorting its electrical windings.
The DB circuit is incorporated into the servo amplifier. Zero Clamp Function Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual zero clamp function is used for systems where the host controller does not form a position loop for the speed reference input. In other words, this function is used to stop and lock the servomotor even when the input voltage of speed reference V-REF is not 0V.
An internal position loop is temporarily formed to clamp the servomotor within one pulse when the zero clamp function is turned ON. Even if the servomotor is forcibly rotated sigma bike computer b5-12 manual external force, it will still return to the zero clamp position. A speed reference lower than the Pn setting is ignored.
Setting Parameter Signal Description ms Pn Zero clamp is performed when the following two conditions sigma bike computer b5-12 manual satisfied: Setting Motor Speed Use the following parameter to set the motor speed level at which zero clamp is performed. If zero clamp speed control is selected, set the motor speed at which zero clamp is to be performed.
The maximum speed will be used if the bike gps fitness tracker of Pn is set higher than the maximum speed of the servomotor.
Zero Clamp Conditions Zero clamp is performed when all the following conditions are satisfied: V-REF speed reference Speed. In other words, a servomotor with brake prevents the movable part from shifting due to the force of gravity when system sigma bike computer b5-12 manual goes OFF.
Prevents the movable part from shifting due to gravity when system power goes OFF. The brake built into the servomotor SGM H with brakes is a de-energization brake, which is used only to hold and cannot be sigma bike computer b5-12 manual for braking. Use the holding brake only manuak hold a stopped motor. The following diagram shows a standard wiring example. Servomotor Servo amplifier with brake. CN2 PG.
Brake Power Supply Provided by Customer. This output signal controls the brake when using a servomotor with a brake and does. State Status Result ON: Closed or low level Releases the brake. Open or high level Applies the brake. Brake ON Eau claire bike computer If the equipment moves slightly due to ssigma when sigma bike computer b5-12 manual brake is applied, set the following parameter to adjust brake ON timing.
In the drop-down menu the choices are 6.
TAB 7. GSS and SJ. To close the file, click on the X in the top right-hand corner of the view, or click File. Exit using the File manuall.
Command-prompt users sigma bike computer b5-12 manual perform Step 1 by typing "tablo -pgs sj -log sj. This gives a graphical view as to how accurately the equations have been solved 9. SL4 in a text editor because it is a gps device reviews file, not a text file. Coomputer will see the Contents page manusl many of the variables of the model.
ViewSOL has 3 slightly different formats for this Contents list. Select Format To see the results of one of these variables listed siggma name, just double-click on the corresponding row in the Contents list. Select 3 decimal places see the third drop-down list box along the top row of the current ViewSOL window - the only one with a single figure in it. Then you should see something like the following:. Across the sigma bike computer b5-12 manual row you see the percentage change result 5.
You should mwnual be able to understand all of these results. Then click on Contents to return to the Contents list or click twice on any number. Now you see. This indicates that you are just seeing the linearized simulation results sigma bike computer b5-12 manual percentage changes in the four components of this variable. To see the pre-simulation levels results, click on the second drop-down list box the one showing "1 sjlb" and select the second alternative "2 Pre sjlb".
Then you will see the pre-simulation levels results. You might also like to look at the post-simulation levels results and the changes.
This section sigma bike computer b5-12 manual the steps that you just followed to sigma bike computer b5-12 manual a model and carry out a simulation. In all cases, after the TABLO Input file for a model has been written, there are 3 steps on the manuxl to carry out a first simulation with the model. These steps are:. Next we describe the Source-code procedure.
The Executable-image version of steps 1 and 2 is described in section 3.
Take inputs from a Command file which tells the program which base data files are to be read and describes the closure that is, which variables are exogenous and which are endogenous and the commputer. This program then computes the solution to your simulation and writes the results to a Solution file. An alternative is to use the program SLTOHT to process results for example, to produce tables for reportsas introduced in section 3.
The LTG step 1 b in section 3. Step 3 is identical compurer the two cases. In such cases, you do not have to repeat Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual 1 a and 1 b. All you have to do is carry bell bike computer manuals Steps 2 and 3. A hands-on example is given in section 3. Mahual are shown sigma bike computer b5-12 manual Table 3.
The results show what happens if the supply of labor is increased by 10 per cent and the supply of capital is held fixed. Recall that, within GEMPACK, all simulations are set up and solved as perturbations from an initial solution, and results are usually reported as changes or percentage changes from this original solution.
In this case the original solution values are as shown in Table 3. Suitable levels values for quantities sigma bike computer b5-12 manual be obtained by assuming that, initially, all prices are 1. This just sets the units in which quantities are measured. Then, for example, since households consume 4 million dollars' worth of commodity 2, this means that they consume 4 million units of that commodity. Hence the three simulation results mentioned above mean that, once labor is increased by 10 per cent and capital is held fixed:.
Total nominal household expenditure Y has increased to approximately 6. Household consumption XH of commodity 2 has increased to 4.
The commodity price PC of commodity 2 has fallen from one dollar per unit to approximately The dollar value of household consumption DVHOUS of the commodity produced by sector "s2" has risen from 4 million dollars to approximately 4. The updated values in 23 and 4 above should be related since dollar value should equal price times quantity. The levels equation for commodity 2 "s2" is. Note that this equation is true for the sigma bike computer b5-12 manual values, since, from 2 and 3 above, the post-simulation price times the post-simulation quantity is.
This confirms that the solution shown in ViewSOL satisfies the levels equation connecting price, quantity and dollar value of household consumption of this commodity. You might like to check some of the other levels equations sigma bike computer b5-12 manual this way. The file SJLB. CMF is shown in full in Figure 3. TAB for the Stylized Johansen model. Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual and SJ.
You can find more details about these Auxiliary files in HAR which contains the data in Table 3. While such comments are ignored by the software, they are very important in organising and documenting the Command file and in making it an intelligible record of the simulation.
The data in these updated data files represent post-simulation values that is, the ones that would hold after the shocks have worked their way through the economy.
For Stylized Johansen, this contains post-simulation dollar values of the entries in Table 3. The statement. The most important output from a simulation is the Solution file which contains the results for the percentage changes in prices and quantities.
Here we have omitted the name bike gps files the Solution file so the name of this file is taken from the name of the Command file. Another alternative is to add a statement of the form. Such a statement is allowed, but it is customary to omit it so that the name of the Solution file is inferred from the name of the Command file.
You are required to give a verbal description of the simulation. Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual description, which can be several lines of text, goes on the Solution file and is visible from ViewSOL and other programs. You can use this bicycle computer lixada manual remind yourself and others about salient features of the simulation. CMF give 4 lines of text for the verbal description in this case.
These are introduced in section 3. The statements. See section 3. The accuracy of the solution depends on the solution method and the numbers of steps.
The information on this file is described in section 3. Bike computer turn by turn name of this file is the same as that of the Solution gps for road bike except that sigma bike computer b5-12 manual has a different suffix, namely '.
CMF of the Command file but changes the suffix from. CMF to. This LOG file is a useful record of the simulation. More details about these can be found in chapters 21 and e bike computer Once the simulation shocks have worked their way through the economy, prices and quantities change as reported by the simulation results. These price and quantity changes imply changes in the values contained in the original data base for the model.
These new values are written to a file which is referred to as the updated data or post-simulation data. This file contains the data as it would be after the shocks in this case, the increase in labor sigma bike computer b5-12 manual have worked their sigma bike computer b5-12 manual through the model. You learned in section 3. This file is the starting point for the simulation; and, when you look at this file you see the numbers shown in Table 3. Click on File Open In ViewHAR's contents screen, each row corresponds to a different array sigma bike computer b5-12 manual data on the file.
Look at the column under the heading "Name" to see what data are in these arrays. Look at values within the three arrays. You can check that these post-simulation values are consistent with the results of the simulation as discussed in section 3. The most obvious results of a simulation are the percentage changes in the variables. The updated data which is always obtained when you run a simulation is another important "result" of the simulation, one which is sometimes overlooked. You can look at this updated data to see how the data base has changed as a result of the simulation.
When you have run some simulations and analysed the best mountain biking computer results, the next step is usually sigma bike computer b5-12 manual write a report containing a selection of the results in sigma bike computer b5-12 manual or graphs.
This section describes how you can transfer simulation results into a spreadsheet program, such as Microsoft Excel. You can use the spreadsheet program to produce tables and graphs which can be copied and pasted into your report. SL4 created in the example simulation described above. Once you have suitable tables in your spreadsheet program, you can use it to create graphs of the results. Open file SJLB.
Select Format and then select Arrange vectors by size and set. Use the Decimal Places list box in middle of upper toolbar to display at least 4 decimal places. This copies the table of numbers to the clipboard.
Open your spreadsheet program and paste into a new spreadsheet. Use the spreadsheet editing to make the table ready for the report. Copy the table from your spreadsheet and paste it into the report document in your word processor, in the usual Windows way. You should see a table like sigma bike computer b5-12 manual following. ViewSOL has many different Formats that you can use to set up the bike computer for people who need reading glasses to export.
In the previous example, you interactively pasted from ViewSOL into a spreadsheet the results for one variable. However, once you have created a Spreadsheet Mapping file see below you can, in one operation, import results for many variables into a spreadsheet.
This bike citizens fahrrad navi gps that you can automate the production of quite sigma bike computer b5-12 manual reports. This is a text file which can be opened in your spreadsheet program to import the numbers generated by the simulation.
Many arrays, even big arrays with many conputer and columns, can be imported, and then perhaps after some reformatting moved to your report. This is an example of a Spreadsheet Mapping file see sections A comma is the default choice. CSV, which is shown below after the Command prompt case. The output in file sjlb. CSV as a text file with commas copmuter separators.
If you format the number cells to show three decimal places, you get a neat spreadsheet table with the labels in one column and the values computter the second column. In a report you would probably want to replace the column of labels with more meaningful labels. There are various different options available in SLTOHT used to produce different kinds of tables as described in chapter Option SES Spread Sheet with Element labels produces a table of results using the element names sigma bike computer b5-12 manual row and sigma bike computer b5-12 manual labels.
Click on SES and select a Comma as separator. CSV which already exists. Open the file sjlb2. You only need to do Steps 2 and 3 there. The following example shows you how to make a new Command file in the text editor and then run another simulation manua, SJ. The new simulation is to increase the price of labor by 3 per cent and to increase sigma bike computer b5-12 manual supply of capital by 10 per cent.
You need to change the closure and sigma bike computer b5-12 manual apply these different shocks. Click on File Save As Here you keep the supply of capital exogenous, but set the price rather than the supply of labor exogenous. However, it does not matter if you use upper or lower case, or a mixture, in Command files. There can be several lines of text in it.
This is Step 2 of the simulation steps cateye vectra bike computer manual in section 3.
Sigma bike computer b5-12 manual there are errors when this runs, you will see a window headed "Error during Simulation". To correct the errors in the Command file, click on the button Edit Command file to use split screen editing. The errors will be marked in the LOG file, usually near the end of the biek. When you have identified what is causing sigma bike computer b5-12 manual error, you sigma bike computer b5-12 manual make the appropriate change in compuetr Command file in the kanual part of the screen not the LOG file.
The Next error button may help you to find errors. Then close sigmma error window by clicking on Close in it. Now click on Run to run the simulation again. If bime are errors, the errors will be marked in the LOG file which is probably called sjlb2. When you have identified what is causing an error, you must make the appropriate change in the Command file not the LOG file. After you correct an error, rerun the simulation.
When sj. Johansen solutions are approximate results of a simulation. In contrast, multi-step solutions can be made arbitrarily accurate by taking enough steps.
In this section we describe the main ideas involved in calculating these different solutions. Johansen solutions are calculated by bontrager wireless bike computer the linearized equations 15 of the model once; multi-step solutions are obtained by solving these equations several times.
C compuer the n x m matrix of coefficients of the equations, known as the Equations. Matrix which is closely related to the Equations file 16. We call C the Equations Matrix blke the model It is often useful to think of this matrix as a rectangular array or tableau 18 with the vector variables across the top and the equation blocks along the left-hand side. Each vector variable occupies as many columns as its number of components, and each equation block occupies as many rows as the number of actual equations in it.
TAB is shown in Table 3. Notice that we use the words "variable" and "equation" in two different senses.
sigma bike computer b5-12 manual For example, we usually say that Stylized Johansen is a model with 29 variables and 27 sigma bike computer b5-12 manual, where we count as variables all the components of the vector variables and we count as equations all the individual equations in the equation blocks. In this sense, the number of variables is the number of columns in the Equations Matrix while the number of equations is bike computer app for trainer number of rows.
Alternatively we may say that the TABLO Input file for Stylized Johansen has 11 variables meaning vector variables and 10 equations meaning equation blocks.
Usually the context will make clear which of these two meanings is intended. In general, n is less than m in the system of equations in 1 above, so when you carry out a simulation Johansen or multi-step you must specify. For Stylized Johansen, the total number of variables m is 29 and the total number of equations n sigma bike computer b5-12 manual 27, so we need 2 exogenous variables.
We can shock either 1 or 2 of these exogenous variables. The numerical values of some of the entries in the Equations Matrix can be seen in section 4.
Johansen solutions are defined to be solutions obtained by solving the linearized equations of the model just once. Because electric bike with gps levels equations of the model are usually nonlinear, the results of this calculation are only approximations sometimes good approximations and sometimes not-so-good to the corresponding solution of the levels equations sigma bike computer b5-12 manual the model.
The LHS bikr A consists of the columns of the Equations matrix sigma bike computer b5-12 manual to the endogenous variables in the given closure. Similarly the columns of the matrix D are just the columns of C corresponding to the exogenous variables in the closure. The shocks are the values to use for z wigma.
Once these are known, we have a system. It is the solution z 1 of this matrix equation 3 which is the Johansen solution of the simulation The idea of a multi-step simulation is to break each of the shocks up into several smaller pieces. In each step, the linearized equations comluter solved for garmina smaller shocks. After each step the data, shares and elasticities are recalculated to take into account the changes from the previous step.
In general, the sigma bike computer b5-12 manual steps the shocks are broken sigma bike computer b5-12 manual, the more accurate will be the results.
Figure 3. We suppose that they start from initial values X 0 ,Y 0 at the point A and that X is shocked from value X 0 to value X 1.
In a Johansen that is, a 1-step solution we follow the straight line which is a tangent to the curve at point A to reach point B J and so get solution Y J. In Euler's method the direction to move at each step is essentially that of the tangent to the curve at the appropriate point. In a 2-step Euler solution see Figure abovewe first go half way along this tangent to point C 2then recompute the direction in which to move, and eventually reach point B 2giving solution Y E2.
The exact solution is at B where Y has value Y sigma bike computer b5-12 manual. In a 4-step Euler simulation we follow a path of 4 straight-line segments, and so on for more steps. The default method used by GEMPACK is Gragg's method which uses an even more accurate method than Euler's method for calculating the direction in which to move at each step.
Usually the computational cost of this extra calculation is more than repaid sigma bike computer b5-12 manual the extra accuracy obtained. More information about Gragg's method and the similar midpoint method can be found in section So one way of increasing accuracy is to increase the number of steps. It turns sigma bike computer b5-12 manual, however, that sigma bike computer b5-12 manual best way to sigma bike computer b5-12 manual an accurate solution is to carry out 2 or 3 different multi-step calculations with different numbers of steps and to then calculate the solution as an appropriate weighted average of these.
This is what is meant by the extrapolated solution. The table below shows Euler and Gragg results for different step numbers and extrapolations based on them. Note that the exact result is 5. When you extrapolate, if you ask for an Extrapolation Accuracy file or. XAC file garmin computer appthis file shows how accurate the solution is for each endogenous variable.
The separate columns show the results for the different multi-step solutions calculated, and the last column of results is the extrapolated result. When you extrapolate from 3 different multi-step results which is what we recommendthe last two columns give bell f12 bike computer instructions information about the accuracy of each result.
If they show M sig,a agreement, this means that the 2 different extrapolations based respectively on just the first two and just the first and third agree to this number of figures. CMF sigma bike computer b5-12 manual see sections 3. The results are the sigma bike computer b5-12 manual results and the extrapolation based on them. The comment "CX 4" is an abbreviation meaning that you can have confidence in the extrapolated result this is the 'CX' and that the two extrapolations the first based just on the 1,2-step results and the second based on the 2,4-step results agree to 4 figures or more.
Note that the agreements are reported as figures, not decimal places. For example
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